1University of Tartu, Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, Tartu, Estonia
2Lithuanian Sports University, Kaunas, Lithuania
3University of Seville, Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Seville, Spain
4University of West Hungary, Department of Sport Science, Szombathely, Hungary
The Perception of the Autonomy Supportive Behaviour as a Predictor of Perceived Effort and Physical Self-esteem among School Students from Four Nations
Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), this study tested a model of motivational sequence in which perceived autonomy support from teachers in a physical education (PE) context predicted the perceived effort and physical self-esteem via self-determined motivation in school students. School students aged 12 to 16 years from Estonia (N = 816), Lithuania (N = 706), Hungary (N = 664), and Spain (N = 922) completed measures of perceived autonomy support from PE teachers, need satisfaction for autonomy, competence, relatedness, self-determined motivation, perceived effort and physical self-esteem. The results of the structural equation model (SEM) of each sample indicated that the students’ perceived autonomy support from the teacher was directly related to effort and indirectly via autonomous motivation, whereas physical self-esteem was related indirectly. Confirmatory factor analyses and multi-sample structural equation revealed well-fitting models within each sample with the invariances of the measurement parameters across four nations. The findings support the generalizability of the measures in the motivational sequence model to predict perceived effort and physical self-esteem.
perceived autonomy support, physical self-esteem, effort, physical education
Bentler, P. M., & Chou,C. (1987). Practical issues in structural modelling. Sociological Methods and Research, 6, 78 – 117.
Brislin, R. W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments. In W. J. Lonner & J. W Berry (Eds), Field methods in educational research (pp. 137–164). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with Amos: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd edition). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Group.
Chen, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Beyers, W., Deci, E. L., Van der Kaap-Deeder, J., Duriez, B., Lens, W. Matos, L, Mouratidis, A., Ryan, R. M., Sheldon, K.M., Soenens, B., Van Petegem, S., & Verstuyf, J. (2015). Basic psychological need satisfaction, need frustration, and need strength across four cultures. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 216–236.
Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling 9, 233 – 255.
Cox, A. E., Smith, A. L., & Williams, L. (2008). Change in physical education motivation and physical activity behavior during middle school. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 43, 506 – 513.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 109 – 134.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem. In: M. Kernis (Ed), Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem (pp. 31–49). New York: Plenum.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000).The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227 – 268.
Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Gagné, M., Leone, D. R., Usunov, J., & Kornazheva, B. P. (2001). Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former Eastern Bloc country. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 930-942.
Garn, A. C., McCaughtry, N., Martin, J., Shen, B., & Fahlman, M. (2012). A basic needs theory investigation of adolescents’ physical self-concept and global self-esteem. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 314 – 328.
Gillison, F. B., Standage, M., & Skevington, S. M. (2013). The effects of manipulating goal content and autonomy support climate on outcomes of a PE fitness class. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 342 – 352.
Guay, F., Mageau, G. A., & Vallerand, R. J. (2003). On the hierarchical structure of self-determined motivation: A test of top-down, bottom-up, reciprocal, and horizontal effects. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 992 – 1004.
Hagger, M. S., Biddle, S. J.H., Chow, E, W., Stambulova, N. and Kavussan, M. (2003). Physical self-perceptions in adolescence: Generalizability of a hierarchical multidimensional model across three cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 611 – 628.
Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis N. L. D., Hein, V., Soós ,I., Karsai, I., Lintunen, T., & Leemans, S. (2009). Teacher, peer, and parent autonomy support in physical education and leisure time physical activity: a trans-contextual model of motivation in four nations. Psychology and Health, 24, 689 – 711.
Hein, V., Ries, F., Pires, F., Caune, A., Emeljanovas, A., Ekler, J.H., & Valantiniene, I. (2012). The relationship between teaching styles and motivation to teach among physical education teachers. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 11,123 – 130.
Hu, L. & Bentler, P. M. (1999. Cut-off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling, 6, 1 – 55.
Li, F., Harmer, P., & Acock, A. (1996). The task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire: construct equivalence and mean differences across gender. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68, 228 – 238.
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224 – 253.
Markland, D. A., & Ingledew, D. K. (2007). The relationships between body mass and body image and relative autonomy for exercise among adolescent males and females. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 836 – 853.
Martín-Albo, J., Núñez, J. L., Domínguez, E., León, J., & Tomás, J. M. (2012). Relationships between intrinsic motivation, physical self-concept and satisfaction with life: A longitudinal study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30, 337 – 347.
Marsh, H. W., Marco, I. T., & Asci, F. H. (2002). Cross-cultural validity of the physical self-description questionnaire: Comparison of factor structures in Australia, Spain and Turkey. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 257 – 270.
Marsh, H. W., Richards, G. E., Johnson, S., Roche, L., & Tremayne, P. (1994). Physical Self-Description Questionnaire: Psychometric properties and a multitrait-multimethod analysis of relations to existing instruments. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16, 270 – 305.
McAuley, E., Duncan, T., & Tammen, V. V. (1989). Psychometric properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory in a competitive sport setting: A confirmatory factor analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 60, 48 – 58.
Ntoumanis, N. (2001). A self-determination approach to the understanding of motivation in physical education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 225 – 242.
Ntoumanis, N., & Standage, M. (2009). Motivation in physical education classes: A self-determination theory perspective. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 194 – 202.
Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–52.
Quested, E., Ntoumanis, N., Viladrich, C., Haug, E., Ommundsen, Y., Van Hoye, A., & Duda, J.L. (2013). Intentions to drop-out of youth soccer: A test of the basic needs theory amount European youth from five countries. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 395-407.
Reeve, J., & Halusic, M. (2009). How K-12 teachers can put self-determination theory principles into practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 145 – 154.
Reeve, J., Jang, H., Hardre, P., & Omura, M. (2002). Providing a rationale in an autonomy-supportive way as a strategy to motivate others during an uninteresting activity. Motivation and Emotion, 26, 183 – 207.
Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 749 –761.
Standage, M., & Gillison, F. (2007). Students’ motivational responses toward school physical education and their relationship to general self–esteem and health–related quality of life. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 704 – 721.
Standage, M., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2005). A test of self-determination theory in school physical education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 411 – 433.
Standage, M., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2006). Students’ motivational processes and their relationship to teacher ratings in school physical education: A self-determination theory approach. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77, 100 – 110.
Standage, M., Gillison, F., Ntoumanis, N., & Treasure, D. C. (2012). Predicting students’ physical activity and health-related well-being: A prospective cross-domain investigation of motivation across school physical education and exercise settings. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 34, 37–60.
Taylor, I. M., Ntoumanis, N., Standage, M., & Spray, C. M. (2010). Motivational predictors of physical education students’ effort, exercise intentions, and leisure-time physical activity: A multilevel linear growth analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32, 99 – 120.
Zhang, T. (2009). Relations among school students’ self-determined motivation, perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 109, 783 – 790.
Vallerand, R. J. (1997) Towards a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In M. P Zanna (Ed), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp.271 – 359). New York: Academic Press.
Vallerand, R. J., & Ratelle, C. F. (2002). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: A hierarchical model. In E.I. Deci, & R.M. Ryan, R. (Eds), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 37 – 63). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Vlachopoulos, S. P, Asci, F. H., Cid, L., Ersoz, G., Conzăles-Cutre, D., Moreno-Murcia, J. A., & Moutao, J. (2013) Cross-cultural invariance of the basic psychological needs in exercise scale and need satisfaction latent mean differences among Greek, Spanish, Portuguese and Turkish samples. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 622 – 631.