Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2015, 4(2), 17-28
Sport psychologist needs to understand how psychological factors affect athletic performance of an individual, considering individual differences among athletes. Each specific problem in working with athletes must be considered depending on complex factors: the type (specificity) of sport; characteristics of the activity (the training or competition); stages of athletes’ sports development; gender and age differences, etc. Although there are numerous psychological instruments, which assess psychological characteristics of athletes, it is important to select instruments adjusted to athletes, working style of sports psychologist, available time and other constraints. Here, we have formulated a preliminary version of our own battery of questionnaires, named Multi¬di¬men¬sional Inventory of Sport Excellence (MUSI), selecting the items for following psychological characteristics: energizing, main¬tain¬ing attention, directing attention, wide internal / external attention and narrow internal / external attention. In this phase of the stu¬dy, participants were stratified only by gender. Sample of 248 participants was examined, of which 103 male athletes (age 24.52 ± 11.80 years) and 145 female athletes (age 16.61 ± 6.69 years), from the Croatian sports clubs, competing in 16 different sports (archery, football, handball, bocce, bowling, cycling, karate, rowing, tennis, volleyball, basketball, synchronized swimming, tri¬a¬t¬h¬lon, table tennis, chess, badminton). Data were collected from March to June 2014 in Rijeka, during the trainings in sports clubs. Results of Principal Component Analysis and the reliabilities type internal consistency showed that each of sub-question¬na¬ires from battery MUSI have satisfactory reliability and construct validity, giving positive guidance for future adaptation of the que¬stion¬naire to specific subpopulations of athletes.
diagnosis, practical skills, sports excellence, sport psychologist
View full article
(PDF – 242KB)
Abernethy, B., Summers, J.J. & Ford, S. (1998). Issues in the measurement of attention. In, J.L. Duda (Ed.) Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement (pp. 173-193). Morgantown: Fitness Information Technology.
Kovářová, L., Kovář, K. (2010). Concentration of attention as a predisposition of performance in junior categories in endurance sports. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 40 (1), 23-31.
Landers, D.M. (1982). Arousal attention and skilled performance: Further considerations. Quest, 33, 271-283.
Lieberman, H.R. (2006). Mental Energy: Assessing the Cognition Dimension. Nutrition Reviews, 64 (7), 10-13.
McNair, D.M., Heuchert, J.W.P., & Shillony, E. (in press). Research with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) 1964-2002: A comprehensive bibliography. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.
McNair, D.M., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L.F. (1971). Manual for the Profile of Mood States. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Services.
Nideffer, R.M. (1976). Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 394-404.
Nideffer, R.M., Bond, J. (2012). A Cross Cultural Examination of the Concentration Skills of Elite Level Athletes. Retrieved from: http://www.epstais.com/articles/xcult.php (2/1/2015).
Nideffer, R.M., Bond, J. Cei, A. & Manili, U. (2012). Building A Psychological Profile of Olympic Medalists and World Champions. Retrieved from: http://www.taisdata.com/ articles/building.php (2/1/2015).
Norman, D.A. (1968). Toward a theory of memory and attention. Psychological Review, 75, 522-536.
O'Connor, P.J. (2006). Mental Energy: Assessing the Mood Dimension. Nutrition Reviews, 64 (7), 7-9.
Orlick, T. & Partington, J. (1988). Mental links to excellence. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 105-130.
Summers, J.J. & Ford, S.K. (1990). The test of attentional and interpersonal style: An evaluation. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 21, 102-111.
Van Schoyck, S.R. & Grasha, A.F. (1981). Attentional style variations and athletic ability: The advantage of a sport-specific test. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, 149-165.
Vallerand, R.J. (1983). Attention and decision-making: A test of the predictive validity of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS) in a sport setting. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 449-459.
Weinberg, R.S., Gould, D. (1995). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. Human Kinetics. Champaign, Illinois.