Ricardo Ferraz1,2, Luis Branquinho3,2,4, Andrew Sortwell5,2, José E. Teixeira6,4, Pedro Forte3,6,2,4, Daniel A. Marinho1,2
1Department of Sports Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
2Research Centre in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, Covilhã, Portugal
3Department of Sports, Higher Institute of Educational Sciences of the Douro, Penafiel, Portugal
4CI-ISCE-ISCE Douro, 4560-708 Penafiel
5School of Nursing, Midwifery, Health Sciences and Physiotherapy, University of Notre Dame, Sydney, Australia
6Department of Sport, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Bragança, Portugal
Teaching models in physical education: current and future perspectives
Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2023, 12(1), 53-60 | DOI: 10.26773/mjssm.230307
The study of teaching models used during the discipline of physical education has been the object of analysis over the last few years. Even so, due to the increasing reduction in the levels of participation in sport, there is a need to reflect on the most effective pedagogy and teaching models to reverse this trend. For these reasons, this review has as main objective to synthesize the teaching methodologies present in the literature. The search strategy comprised search words that combined one of two primary keywords (“physical education”, “teaching-learning process”, and “teachers), with a second keyword (“model”, “pedagogy”, “competency”) and a third keyword (“sports”, “games”). After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 28 articles were counted for analysis. The results indicate that there is a need to strengthen the relationship between pedagogical theory and practice through innovation, which can emerge from the experimentation of new models, strategies, and teaching contents so that the discipline of physical education, in order to contribute unequivocally to the training of children and young people, resulting in lifelong involvement in physical activity.
Teachers, Teaching Models, Physical Education, Children
View full article
(PDF – 280KB)
Anderson, D. I. (2018). Motor development: Far more than just the development of motor skills. Kinesiology Review, 7(2), 99–114. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2018-0011
Bayraktar, G. (2011). The effect of cooperative learning on students’ approach to general gymnastics course and academic achievements. Educational Research and Reviews, 6(1), 62–71.
Bessa, C., Hastie, P., Araújo, R., & Mesquita, I. (2019). What do we know about the development of personal and social skills within the sport education model: A systematic review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 18(4), 812–829.
Brophy, J. E. (1979). Teacher behavior and its effects. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(6), 733–750. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1243
Bunker, D., & Thorpe, R. (1982). A model for the teaching of games in secondary schools. Bulletin of Physical Education, 18(1), 5–8.
Butler, J. I. (2006). Curriculum constructions of ability: Enhancing learning through Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) as a curriculum model. Sport, Education and Society, 11(3), 243–258. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573320600813408
Casey, A., & Kirk, D. (2020). Models-based Practice in Physical Education. In Models-based Practice in Physical Education. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429319259
Casey, A., & MacPhail, A. (2018). Adopting a models-based approach to teaching physical education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 23(3), 294–310. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2018.1429588
Chow, J. Y., & Atencio, M. (2014). Complex and nonlinear pedagogy and the implications for physical education. Sport, Education and Society, 19(8), 1034–1054. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2012.728528
Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Button, C., & Renshaw, I. (2015). Nonlinear pedagogy in skill acquisition: An introduction. In Nonlinear Pedagogy in Skill Acquisition: An Introduction. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315813042
Darnis-Paraboschi, F., Lafont, L., & Menaut, A. (2005). A social-constructivist approach in physical education: Influence of dyadic interactions on tactical choices in an instructional team sport setting. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 20(2), 171–184. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03173506
de Morton, N. A. (2009). The PEDro scale is a valid measure of the methodological quality of clinical trials: a demographic study. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 55(2), 129–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0004-9514(09)70043-1
Decristan, J., Klieme, E., & Hardy, I. (2019). Adaptive teaching in research on learning and instruction Adaptiver Unterricht in der Lehr-Lernforschung Zusammenfassung. Journal for Educational Research Online Journal Für Bildungsforschung Online, 11(2), 169–191.
Díaz-Cueto, M., Hernández-Álvarez, J. L., & Castejón, F. J. (2010). Teaching games for understanding to in-service physical education teachers: Rewards and barriers regarding the changing model of teaching sport. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29(4), 378–398. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.29.4.378
Donnelly, F. C., Mueller, S. S., & Gallahue, D. L. (2017). Developmental Physical Education for All Children. In Developmental Physical Education for All Children. Human Kinetics. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781718210400
Dyson, B., Griffin, L. L., & Hastie, P. (2004). Sport education, tactical games, and cooperative learning: Theoretical and pedagogical considerations. Quest, 56(2), 226–240. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2004.10491823
Eldar, E., & Ayvazo, S. (2009). Educating through the physical-rationale. Education and Treatment of Children, 32(3), 471–486. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.0.0061
Farias, C., Valério, C., & Mesquita, I. (2018). Sport education as a curriculum approach to student learning of invasion games: Effects on game performance and game involvement. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 17(1), 56–65.
Ferraz, Ricardo, Silva, M., A. Marinho, D., P. Neiva, H., & Branquinho, L. (2021). Student Motivation Associated With the Practice of Individual and Team Sports in Physical Education Classes. Journal of Advances in Sports and Physical Education, 4(4), 51–58. https://doi.org/10.36348/jaspe.2021.v04i04.002
Ferry, M., & Romar, J. E. (2020). Physical education preservice teachers’ physical activity habits and perceptions of the profession and subject: Development during teacher education. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20(4), 3108–3119. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2020.s6422
Gimazutdinov, R. G. (2020). Theoretical Basis of Physical Education of Children of Preschool Age. Academic Research in Educational Sciences Volume, 1(4), 2181–1385. www.ares.uz
Ginanjar, A., Suherman, A., Juliantine, T., & Hidayat, Y. (2019). Competitions in Physical Education Using Sports Education Model. 3rd International Conference on Sport Science, Health, and Physical Education (ICSSHPE 2018), 282–284. https://doi.org/10.2991/icsshpe-18.2019.80
Goodyear, V., & Dudley, D. (2015). “I’m a Facilitator of Learning!” Understanding What Teachers and Students Do Within Student-Centered Physical Education Models. Quest, 67(3), 274–289. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2015.1051236
Graça, A. S., & Mesquita, I. R. (2002). A investigação sobre o ensino dos jogos desportivos: ensinar e aprender as habilidades básicas do jogo. Revista Portuguesa de Ciências Do Desporto, 2002(5), 67–79. https://doi.org/10.5628/rpcd.02.05.67
Green, K., Cale, L., & Harris, J. (2018). Re-imagination and re-design in physical education. Redesigning Physical Education: An Equity Agenda in Which Every Child Matters, 156.
Guthold, R., Stevens, G. A., Riley, L. M., & Bull, F. C. (2020). Global trends in insufficient physical activity among adolescents: a pooled analysis of 298 population-based surveys with 1·6 million participants. The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, 4(1), 23–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30323-2
Harvey, S., Pill, S., Hastie, P., & Wallhead, T. (2020). Physical education teachers’ perceptions of the successes, constraints, and possibilities associated with implementing the sport education model. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 25(5), 555–566. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2020.1752650
Kirk, D. (2013). Educational Value and Models-Based Practice in Physical Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 45(9), 973–986. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2013.785352
Lardika, R. A., & Tulyakul, S. (2020). The Effect of Direct Instruction Model in Physical Education Towards Students’ Adversity Quotient (AQ). Journal Sport Area, 5(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.25299/sportarea.2020.vol5(1).4460
Lee, M. C. Y., Chow, J. Y., Button, C., & Tan, C. W. K. (2017). Nonlinear Pedagogy and its role in encouraging twenty-first century competencies through physical education: a Singapore experience. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 37(4), 483–499. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2017.1386089
López, I., Práxedes, A., & del Villar, F. (2016). Effect of an Intervention Teaching Program, Based on Tgfu Model, on the Cognitive and Execution Variables, in the Physical Education Context. / Efecto De La Aplicación De Un Modelo De Enseñanza Tgfu Sobre Las Variables Cognitivas Y De Ejecución, En La Edu. Motricidad: European Journal of Human Movement, 37(37), 88–108. http://leedsbeckett.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=120882011&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mesquita, I. (1998). A instrução e a estruturação das tarefas no treino de Voleibol: Vol. I. Universidade do Porto. Reitoria.
Mesquita, I., Farias, C., & Hastie, P. (2012). The impact of a hybrid Sport Education-Invasion Games Competence Model soccer unit on students’ decision making, skill execution and overall game performance. European Physical Education Review, 18(2), 205–219. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X12440027
Mesquita, I., Farias, C., Oliveira, G., & Pereira, F. (2009). A intervenção pedagógica sobre o conteúdo do treinador de futebol. Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte, 23(01), 25–38. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1807-55092009000100003
Mesquita, I., & Graça, A. (2011). Modelos instrucionais no ensino do Desporto. Pedagogia Do Desporto, 39–68.
Mesquita, I., Pereira, F., & Graça, A. (2009). Modelos de ensino dos jogos desportivos: investigação e ilações para a prática. Motriz, 15(4), 944–954.
Metzler, M. (2017). Instructional Models in Physical Education. In Instructional Models in Physical Education. Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315213521
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 62(10), 1006–1012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.06.005
Moy, B., Renshaw, I., & Davids, K. (2016). The impact of nonlinear pedagogy on physical education teacher education students’ intrinsic motivation. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 21(5), 517–538. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2015.1072506
Nunan, D., Watts, I., Kaji, F. A., Hansjee, S., & Heneghan, C. (2022). Adherence in leading medical journals to the CONSORT 2010 statement for reporting of binary outcomes in randomised controlled trials: cross-sectional analysis. BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine, 27(2), 120–124. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjebm-2020-111489
Parra-González, M. E., López-Belmonte, J., Segura-Robles, A., & Moreno-Guerrero, A. J. (2021). Gamification and flipped learning and their influence on aspects related to the teaching-learning process. Heliyon, 7(2), e06254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06254
Parsons, S. A., Vaughn, M., Scales, R. Q., Gallagher, M. A., Parsons, A. W., Davis, S. G., Pierczynski, M., & Allen, M. (2018). Teachers’ instructional adaptations: A research synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 88(2), 205–242.
Pereira, J., Hastie, P., Araújo, R., Farias, C., Rolim, R., & Mesquita, I. (2014). A comparative study of students’ track and field technical performance in sport education and in a direct instruction approach. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 14(1), 118–127.
Perlman, D., & Karp, G. G. (2010). A self-determined perspective of the Sport Education Model. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 15(4), 401–418. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408980903535800
Pill, S. (2011). Teacher engagement with teaching games for understanding - game sense in physical education. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 11(2), 5–13.
Quina, J. do N. (2009). A organização do processo de ensino em Educação Física. In Série Estudos Escola Superior de Educação (pp. 41–44). Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Escola Superior de Educação.
Ratten, V., & Jones, P. (2018). Future research directions for sport education: toward an entrepreneurial learning approach. Education and Training, 60(5), 490–499. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-02-2018-0028
Renshaw, I., Davids, K., Shuttleworth, R., & Chow, J. Y. (2009). Insights from ecological psychology and dynamical systems. Theory can underpin a philosophy of coaching. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 40(4), 580–602.
Rink, J. E. (2001). Investigating the assumptions of pedagogy. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 20(2), 112–128. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.20.2.112
Rink, J. E., French, K. E., Werner, P. H., Lynn, S., & Mays, A. (2016). The Influence of Content Development on the Effectiveness of Instruction. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 11(2), 139–149. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.11.2.139
Rocamora, I., González-Víllora, S., Fernández-Río, J., & Arias-Palencia, N. M. (2019). Physical activity levels, game performance and friendship goals using two different pedagogical models: Sport Education and Direct Instruction. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 24(1), 87–102. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2018.1561839
Rovegno, I., & Dolly, J. P. (2006). Constructivist perspectives on learning. In, D. Kirk, D. MacDonald & M. O’Sullivan (Eds) The Handbook of Physical Education (pp. 242-261). London, SAGE publications.
Rudd, J. R., Crotti, M., Fitton-Davies, K., O’Callaghan, L., Bardid, F., Utesch, T., Roberts, S., Boddy, L. M., Cronin, C. J., Knowles, Z., Foulkes, J., Watson, P. M., Pesce, C., Button, C., Lubans, D. R., Buszard, T., Walsh, B., & Foweather, L. (2020). Skill Acquisition Methods Fostering Physical Literacy in Early-Physical Education (SAMPLE-PE): Rationale and Study Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in 5–6-Year-Old Children From Deprived Areas of North West England. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1228. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01228
Siedentop, D., Hastie, P., & Van der Mars, H. (2011). Complete guide to Sport Education. Champaign: Human Kinetics. In IL Human Kinetics (Vol. 148). Human Kinetics.
Silva, A., Ferraz, R., Forte, P., Teixeira, J. E., Branquinho, L., & Marinho, D. A. (2022). Multivariate Training Programs during Physical Education Classes in School Context: Theoretical Considerations and Future Perspectives. Sports, 10(6), 89. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10060089
Steinberg, C., Zühlke, M., Bindel, T., & Jenett, F. (2020). Aesthetic education revised: a contribution to mobile learning in physical education. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 50(1), 92–101. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12662-019-00627-9
Stolz, S., & Pill, S. (2014). Teaching games and sport for understanding: Exploring and reconsidering its relevance in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 20(1), 36–71. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X13496001
SueSee, B., & Edwards, K. (2015). Self-Identified and Observed Teaching Styles: A Case Study of Senior Physical Education Teachers in Queensland Schools. Myths in Education, Learning and Teaching: Policies, Practices and Principles, 73–93. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137476982_5
Tan, C. W. K., Chow, J. Y., & Davids, K. (2012). “How does TGfU work?”: Examining the relationship between learning design in TGfU and a nonlinear pedagogy. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 17(4), 331–348. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2011.582486
Teixeira, J. E., Forte, P., Ferraz, R., Leal, M., Ribeiro, J., Silva, A. J., Barbosa, T. M., & Monteiro, A. M. (2021). Monitoring accumulated training and match load in football: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(8), 1–47. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083906
van de Pol, J., Volman, M., & Beishuizen, J. (2010). Scaffolding in teacher-student interaction: A decade of research. Educational Psychology Review, 22(3), 271–296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-010-9127-6
Varea, V. (2018). Mixed messages: pre-service Health and Physical Education teachers’ understandings of health and the body and the expectations of the Australian curriculum. Sport, Education and Society, 23(3), 244–256. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2016.1179182
Vukelja, M., Milanovic, D., & Salaj, S. (2022). Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Croatian Preschool Children: A Population-Based Study. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 11(1), 37–42. https://doi.org/10.26773/mjssm.220304
Wallhead, T. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2004). Effects of a Sport Education Intervention on Students’ Motivational Responses in Physical Education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 23(1), 4–18. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.23.1.4
Wallhead, T., & O’sullivan, M. (2005). Sport Education: physical education for the new millennium? Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 10(2), 181–210. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408980500105098
Wang, C. L.-J., & Ha, A. S.-C. (2009). The Teacher Development in Physical Education: A Review of the Literature. Asian Social Science, 4(12). https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v4n12p3
Webb, P. I., & Pearson, P. J. (2008). An Integrated Approach to Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU). 1st Asia Pacific Sport in Education Conference, January, 1–11.
Webb, P. I., Pearson, P. J., & Forrest, G. (2006). Teaching Games for Understanding ( TGf U ) in primary and secondary physical education. ICHPER-SD International Conference for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance, 1st Oceanic Congress, Wellington, New Zealand, October, 1–4.
Wibowo, J. (2020). Measuring contingency during autonomous learning phases in physical education: Piloting of an observation instrument. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 50(4), 501–510. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12662-020-00673-8
Wibowo, J., Bähr, I., & Gröben, B. (2014). Scaffolding as an instruction model for the cooperative learning model in physical education. Australian Council for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Magazine, 21(2), 15–18.
Winslade, M., & Deborah, C. (2020). Exploring the impact of curriculum change on physical education teacher’s professional identity and pre-service training: An Australian case study. In Physical Education in Universities Researches–Best Practices–Situation (pp. 411–420). Slovak Scientific Society for Physical Education and Sport and FIEP.
Zach, S. (2020). Co-teaching – an approach for enhancing teaching-learning collaboration in physical education teacher education (Pete). Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20(3), 1402–1407. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2020.03193